Both [Calvinists and Arminians] must say that there is something else that God deems more important than saving everyone. Reformed theologians [Calvinists] say that God deems his own glory more important than saving everyone, and that (according to Rom. 9) God's glory is also furthered by the fact that some are not saved. Arminian theologians also say that something else is more important to God than the salvation of all people, namely, the preservation of man's free will. So in a Reformed system, God's highest value is his own glory, and in an Arminian system, God's highest value is the free will of man. These are two distinctly different conceptions of God's nature, and it seems that the Reformed position has much more explicit biblical support than the Arminian position does on this question.
I've been studying several good books in preparation for preaching and teaching this semester. For preaching, I've been reading The Death of Death in the Death of Christ, which is John Owen's powerful defense of God's complete sovereignty in the salvation of man. God ordained that this topic coincide with our Bible study topic this week, the doctrine of election. Dewayne, Nisha, Selena, and I have been using Wayne Grudem's Bible Doctrine to prepare for leading our students through the foundational doctrines of Scripture. Here's a helpful quote from Wayne Grudem which clarifies the "different emphases" of Calvinism and Arminianism:
Grudem is accurate and concise, which is helpful for slow minds like mine, but he's often clinical and timid (e.g., "it seems that the Reformed position…"). John Owen, on the other hand, is manly and direct, which is to say he is pastoral and sounds a lot more like the apostles and the prophets. See for yourself (I've taken out the Latin interjections, slightly updated archaic English grammar, and added some notes about his allusions):